Monday, 4 January 2010


Anatolia region or often referred to in the history of Anadolu, Turkey covers an area today. In the north bordering the Black Sea coast of south, west, north to Bulgaria in the south part of the north west coast of the Mediterranean Sea, Syria, Iraq and the east by Iran and Russia. Some small areas in the west-north separated by the Bosporus Strait, the existence of two separate seas of the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara, but became the dominant cultural and governmental center of several dynasties. In this strait on the west edge of town there is Istanbul, formerly Constantinople, once famous center of Islamic culture in Anatolia and the surrounding area.

Anatolia Before Islam

Before Islam, the culture of Anatolia was recorded in 40th century history and the people in the Troy and Bogazkoy or Hattushash. In 2200-1200 before the era known Hellinic times Urartu, Phrygia and Lydia to each culture.
After the Achaemenid kings from Cyrus' invasion held in this region in 546, making this region prospered under Persian rule. The peak is reached when the glory of Persia under the Macedonian army of Alexander the Great conquered the region. After Alexander died, occurred many power struggles and eventually fall and become one of the Roman province with one defeat Seleucid generals who fought the power was defeated in the war Magnesia in 129 BC.
Roman Empire under Diocletian (284-304 AD) divided the territory into two parts of west and east, continued by Constantine who later made Constantinople (now Istanbul) the central government, culture and religion after Christianity made state religion. Next Constantinople became the heart of the Byzantine Empire a few centuries later, until the arrival of Islam of the Ottoman Empire until the Seljuq dynasty.

Early Muslim era in Turkey

Relations between Turkey and Islam began in 642, when the Turkish-Arab conflict. The first Muslim dynasties ruled Yasaman Kutay Turkey is at the end of the ninth century (870) derived from Buhara Horasan, acquire territory by freeing themselves from the Caliph of power. overall adaptation of Islam by the Turks occurred between 920-960, so that the time had left the Islamic monument, in the form of mosques, tombs, or madrassa. The process of embracing the new religion of Islam for the Turks became the new Babakan in Islamic history was consistent with a direct effect on the development of architecture.
Muslim-Turkish Caliph many troops Abbasyiah strengthen and increasingly widespread in the region involved in control of Islamic lands and the Byzantine East.
The mother of al Mamun (813-833) and al Mu'tasim (833-842), respectively authorities eduanya VII and VIII Abbasyiah son of Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809) was a Turk. Mu'tasim with his bodyguards also from Turkey, at 832-842 to build the city of Samarra near Baghdad, since that's almost all of officers from the authorities Abbasyiah soldiers in the province of Asia Minor consists of Turkish people. Mu'tasim then founded an independent kingdom. Seljuq dynasty and then bring together the western Asia and Anatolia under his control.
Arab dominance of Islam in the region, including eastern Anatolia ended on 954. The emir was forced to hand over power to the leadership of the army under Buyiyah family (Buyids) from clumps Ghus (Guzz). Thus, the emirs hanay simply maintain the shape and the system social not on the substance of power and authority. Then in the next century, political power moved from dynasty to dynasty, especially from the Persian Buyiyah one of them. There is another remarkable dynasty of Ghaznawiyah dynasty, ruled Afghanistan, most of the Punjab and eastern Iran. They initially as the Turkish military slaves and then run the custom-Persian Islam.
Hegemony of the Turks was the stronger in the period under the Great Seljuq (Seljuq The Great) Turcomans tribal followers, the Turks-nomadic robbers who later converted to Islam. Seljuq dynasty dynasty shifted Ghaznawiyah and Buyiyah.
Chronology of the Muslim government in Turkey is divided into periods as follows: Seljuq (1070-1308), Danishemendid (1071-1177), Saltukid (1092-1202), Artuqid (1102-1408), Mengujukid (1118-1252), Mongol ( 1243-1335), Qaramandid (1256-1483), Beylik (the late-late XIV century XVI century) and Ottoman (1281-1924).

Architecture Development

Type of important buildings in the history of Turkish-Muslim, closer to the original tradition than outside influences. Both religious and secular buildings have architectural character is no different, although the materials, proportions, and decor vary. Seljuq architecture created a culture rooted in the Central Asian deserts is very well adapted to the religious pattern varies widely from Shamanism, Buddhism, and Islam. Geographically and sociologically developed in a process of transition from a wide area, the community groups with the other one is very different social and cultural systems. Seljuq inherited and influenced two different civilizations of Anatolia Hittites and Urraltus. On the other hand, residents in the south-eastern Anatolia, is also strongly influenced by the civilizations of Mesopotamia, Seljuq, Iran and Syria.
One of the most important differences or characteristics of the Seljuq architecture is at the portal or gateway, constructed of stone decorated with a variety of shapes and how, or techniques. Portal-Seljuq is typically in the advanced position of the front face, decorated with floral patterns (fegetal), also framed in the form of calligraphy stone. The top of the driveway, usually decorated with broken arch muqarnas on. From one of the decorations was a show full of characters Seljuq: figure taken from the animals totemistic, the human figure from Shamanistic of nomadic communities, floral arabesque clear influence from the East-central. In general portal Seljuq art to prove the strength of his reign. Seljuq architectural characteristics of other elements present in the dome, derived from their own traditions are widely used in the Middle East since the Assyrians. Synthesis in the form of dome Seljuq Anatolia with the original pattern, is a merger in the search for a new implementation.
Jasmine is not the original element Seljuq adopted and modified, so that became one of the architectural features. Similarly, the dome comes from the middle east since the Assyrians had always used was developed with innovation and new techniques, the Muslim religious buildings to be characteristic of other Seljuq architecture. Buildings and parts of the building was made heritage period following the situation illustrates the architectural development of Turkish-Seljuq era. Architectural-Seljuq Turks were strong enough and different than other times and places. Most cylindrical minaretnya Seljuq mosques, tall and majestic with decorations on top. Although the circular cross-section diagram of cylindrical form, but form a polygonal footholds. Walls decorated with calligraphy of the text, forming a ring on the rod-shaped towers are cylindrical. Ornament and the construction of exposed brick (not plastered) constructed so that spaces interwoven lines forming geometric lines. With the construction and decoration is such a terracotta color, is also a hallmark of the towers of the Seljuq towers with such characteristics was established early century XI (around 1020an).
The term or name for the mosque of the Muslims is different, from the Arabic in masgit said, calling Turkey a Muslim mosque mescit small means, to a large mosque called Cami, the same as in Indonesia, its main function jami mosque for Friday prayers, including the sermon. Another term used by many Muslims of Turkish Ulu means, so Ulu Cami mosque together with the highway, the great mosque, the mosque serves to Friday prayers in the largest or most of a city.

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